Tuesday, March 31, 2020
7 Content Calendar Examples From Awesome Brands to Inspire Yours Content calendars can make or break the successful implementation of your content strategy. Why? Because they help keep your team on track, let them see whatÃ¢â¬â¢s coming next, and help them avoid the panic of having to write something at the last minute. In this post, we took seven companies across a variety of industries and reconstructed their blog and social media posting schedulesÃ (based on manual research) to create example content calendars. Then, after youÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen each example, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll show you how to establish your own publishing frequency, and build a content calendar to keep it organized. But First, Who Are We, Anyway?: is an industry-leading marketing calendar software platform. Curious to learn how you can manage your content + social media (and all your other marketing projects), all in one place? Start here. Download Your Content Calendar Template Kit Before you continue reading, download your content calendar template kit. It contains: A social media scheduling calendarÃ to plan, write and organize all your social media messages. A content calendar templateÃ to organize and plan your content in advance. A printable marketing calendarÃ for your desk so you can always keep an eye on whatÃ¢â¬â¢s coming next. A best times to post on social media infographicÃ to take the guesswork out of when you need to be posting. A how often to post on social media infographicÃ to know the baseline amount that you should post on your social media pages. A best times to publish blog posts infographic that lets you see the best times to publish your blog posts to gain the most eyeballs.7 Content Calendar Examples From Awesome Brands to Inspire Your OwnWhat Is The Purpose of a Content Calendar? The purpose of having a content calendar is to make sure your content team stays organized and on top of your publishing schedule. Some specific benefits include: Keeping track of deadlines. Giving your whole team visibility on what youÃ¢â¬â¢re working on. Making it easier to plan ahead. Let's Look At 7 Content Calendar Examples From These Leading Brands We chose the following companies to reconstruct their publishing schedule. Each one of these organizations had an active blog and a regular social media presence. Red Bull: Red Bull is a publishing company that just happens to sell an energy drink. This makes them interesting because they publish a large amount of high quality content. Reverb.com: An e-commerce business that carries musical instruments and accessories. They create content that makes it easy to see and hear what youÃ¢â¬â¢re getting before you buy. Modcloth: An e-commerce vintage clothing brand. They publish a mix of promotional content that helps sell clothes and content that shows their audience how they might look when wearing their product. Disney Parks: An estimated 150 million people visit Disney parks every year. Their content helps those visitors have the best time. BMW: BMW is the most popular car brandÃ on Instagram. Their messages promote an aspirational lifestyle that people strive to achieve. Whole Foods: Whole Foods curates content thatÃ¢â¬â¢s valuable to people who want to live a healthier lifestyle. They also share their own recipes. Concordia College:Ã The marketing department at Concordia uses the story of their current students to attract new prospective students. Each one of these organizations span a variety of industries and company sizes. No matter what your organization does you can see a variety of schedules to inspire your own. Red Bull Red Bull is a massive media powerhouse that just happens to sell an energy drink. As you can see from their content calendar, they publish a lot of stuff whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s blogs, social media messages, videos and more. What conclusions can we draw from Red BullÃ¢â¬â¢s content calendar? Post your content where your audience is most active.Ã Red BullÃ¢â¬â¢s audience of 20 to 30 year old males is most active on Facebook and Instagram. Therefore it makes sense that Red Bull would publish a larger amount of content on these channels. Reuse video content on social media.Ã Red Bull is known for their incredible video content. Much of that gets shared on Facebook and their other social platforms. You might not be able to shoot the same kind of video, but if you have video content at all, repackage it for social media for maximum mileage. Create content that looks and feel authentically like the non-branded content that your audience seeks out. Red Bull is so successful because it looks like content from a publishing house. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like they are being sold too. Takeaway: Organic social media content doesn't always need to sell directly in order to be successful. Take a look at Red Bull's content and social media publishing schedule.Reverb.com Reverb.com is an e-commerce website that sells pretty much any music related instrument you could think of. They know their audience well and have a created a reliable and consistent publishing schedule thatÃ¢â¬â¢s jam-packed full of content about musicians, new and old instruments and techniques their fans would find interesting. What conclusions can we draw from ReverbÃ¢â¬â¢s content calendar? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to publish a lot of content make sure you do it well.Ã One of the reasons that Reverb.com is so successful with their content is because of their ability to tailor it to their audience. They publish a lot of information, but all of it is executed well. Establish trust with your audience. By talking to industry experts, popular musicians and more they are able to establish a sense of trust with their audience. People can drop a lot of money on their sites because they can trust what they find. Create content that makes it easy to understand how to use complex products.Ã Reverb does a great job explaining what their product does and how to use it. Their product base can get overwhelming and stressful so Reverb makes it easy to understand and find the dream product their audience is in search of. Takeaway: Earn your audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s trust through the content you create. Take a look at Reverb's content and social media publishing schedule.ModCloth ModCloth is another e-commerce website that sells womenÃ¢â¬â¢s vintage style clothing. ModCloth caters to a very niche market place as the demand for vintage clothes falls to a unique group of buyers. What conclusions can we draw from ModClothÃ¢â¬â¢s content calendar? Put your audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s interests first.Ã ModclothÃ¢â¬â¢s audience is interested in fashion. They arenÃ¢â¬â¢t satisfied with what they can find at the mall. By creating content that gives their audience fashion ideas by itself, itÃ¢â¬â¢s okay that the copy tells them where to find it. This is an exception where direct selling can work for a retail brand. Start small and grow.Ã You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to publish 67 blog posts and 123 social media messages right off the bat. ModClothÃ¢â¬â¢s publishing schedule is small but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what works for them. You have to walk before you can run and that includes your content creation. Your blog doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be your main focus. Blogs are great, but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re also time-consuming. If your team doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the resources or the time to publish a ton of blog content, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s okay. Focus your efforts on creating great content on your social media pages,e-books or landing pages and slowly grow your blog. Takeaway: Organic social media content should not always look and feel like an ad. Take a look at Mod Cloth's content and social media publishing schedule.Disney Parks Disney is a behemoth in the hospitality and service world and needless to say they publish a lot of content. The Disney Parks blog is just one of several blogs, Facebook pages and more that Disney runs. What conclusions can we draw from Disney ParkÃ¢â¬â¢s content calendar? Create content that creates FOMO. Disney has many massive theme parks that are packed full of attractions and fun family things to do. Their content creates a FOMO or feeling of missing out on all the fun. This move creates a sense of urgency and longing for your audience hopefully promoting them to take action. Show them what they will experience. Create content that shows your audience what they will get or experience when they purchase your products. Instead of letting them guess what will happen, show them instead. Help them have the best time when they do business with you. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s content focuses a lot on the experiences that their customers have. You can do this as well by letting your content show them how working with you creates the best possible experience theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll ever have. Takeaway: Show your audience how to create an experience when they visit you. Take a look at Disney Park's content and social media publishing schedule.Whole Foods Whole Foods is a natural grocery store that was recently acquired by Amazon. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re blog integrates the products their selling with fun easy to read content. What conclusions can we draw from Whole Foods content calendar? If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough blog content to supplement your social media messages, curate it from other sources.Ã Whole Foods doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t publish a ton of blog content throughout the month so to supplement some of its social media posts it will scrape content from other related blogs, news sources and even their own customers. Try publishing themed content. One thing that Whole Foods does well is post themed content. Whether that be new Halloween recipes or ways to used seasoned fruits and vegetables Whole Foods finds a way to make their content timely and themed. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t publish blog content just to fill your content calendar. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re experiencing gaps in your content calendar donÃ¢â¬â¢t randomly publish blog content trying to fill it in. Your blog content should always be strategically written. Takeaway: Everything that Whole Foods publishes is high-quality content that their audience cares about. They might do well to publish a little more but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to have a publishing schedule like Red Bull to be successful. BMW BMW is a world-renowned luxury vehicle maker. Their designs are timeless, classic, and out of reach for many pocket books. Their content marketing strategy however, is not. What conclusions can we draw from BMW content calendar? Use your blog to show behind the scenes stuff about your product.Ã People love seeing what makes a product tick. Use your blog to show them information that they may not get by seeing advertisements or use cases of your product. If you sell an expensive product, use social media to reinforce your brand not make a direct sale. People know who BMW is and how it makes them feel. Their product is out of reach for many of their audience members meaning that a link to a dealership in a post probably isnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to result in a sale. If your product has a pretty hefty price tag use your social media to reinforce the luxury idea of your brand. Make people feel like theyÃ¢â¬â¢re part of the community.Ã BMW is great at making their audience feel included when they buy their product. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re not just purchasing a car, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re also becoming part of a community. Takeaway: If your product is a hard direct sell, create content that caters to your audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s aspirations. Take a look at BMW's content and social media publishing schedule.Concordia College Concordia College is a small liberal arts college in Moorhead, Minnesota. Like many colleges Concordia keeps and active blog and social media presence to attract prospective students. What conclusions can we draw from ConcordiaÃ¢â¬â¢s content calendar? Reshare your blog content.Ã Concordia shares one blog postÃ multiple times on one social media channel. This can help ensure that as many people see your content as possible. Let current customers tell your story. Concordia uses their content to show potential student see what it would look like if they were to attend the college. Word of mouth is more powerful than what you could say about yourself as a brand. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve publish your content respond to what people have to say. Your content publishing schedule is not complete once itÃ¢â¬â¢s live. You need to be able to continue that conversation about your content with your audience. Find out what they think and take the time to show them that you care about what they have to say. Takeaway: Reinforce the idea that your organization creates a community. Take a look at Concordia College's content and social media publishing schedule.How Can You Build Your Own Calendar Like a Leading Brand? YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen sevenÃ different examples. The next step in your process is to create a content publishing schedule and a social media promotion schedule. So how do you do that? Step One: Figure Out Content Types and Publishing Schedule The very first step in developing your content calendar is deciding what types content youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to be publishing. Some common options are: Blog Posts E-Books Landing pages Podcasts Videos Social media posts Email newsletters ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no limit to the types of content that your team can publish but remember to start small and grow into more types later down the road. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve decided what types of content youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to publish, you need to decide how often youÃ¢â¬â¢re going publish each type of content. For example it could look something like: Publish two blog posts a week. Publish one podcast a week. Publish one e-book each quarter. The publishing schedule that your company decides on can grow or shrink depending on For every content piece you publish you should include the following information in your content calendar: The date it publishes. The topic it covers. The content format youÃ¢â¬â¢ll create. In your content calendar template it would look something like this:
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Agency problems and its solutions Essays Agency problems and its solutions Paper Agency problems and its solutions Paper Agency problem and its solutions Introduction Principal-agent relationship occurs when a principal contracts an agent. The principal hires the agent to perform a service for him or to act on his behalf. For example, in a large corporation, shareholders would hire managers to help them to organize the company in dairy business. However, agency problems may arise because Of the conflict interest and asymmetry information between principals and agents, which lead to agency costs. In this essay, would like to use the agency theory introduced by Jensen and Neckline (1976) to analysis that to What extent that agency cost would damage shareholders wealth mastication and what actions shareholders could take to correct it. Agency problems and main causes of First of all, there might to conflicts of interest or different goals between principals and agents, the agent would act as their best self-interest but not principals. Secondly, there is asymmetry information been principals and agents, managers may have more information than principals or they could hide their actions. Thirdly, there is uncertainty in the outcome. The outcome may not just depend on managers effort but also other factors like good luck or high arrests expectation lead to increase in share price. Agency costs Agency cost incurred when the managers do not attempt to maximize fir-n5 value and the cost to monitor manager and constrain their behaviors. Agency cost is the sum of three types of costs, cost of designing the contract, cost of enforcing the contract (monitoring and bonding) and residual loss if contract is not optimal. Solutions of agency problems Monitoring Management compensation Incentive compensation There are two major principal agent model, adverse selection and moral hazard. Adverse selection occurs when one of the parties, usually the agent, has better relevant information prior to the contract. This hidden information will be used opportunistically to optimize the utility gained from entering the contract. In moral hazard the principal is unable to observe the agents actions after signing the contract. This causes the agent not to take the full consequences of his actions and thus he can use this hidden information to act opportunistically and maximize his own profit. In most cases the principal will have to carry the costs of this behavior.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Own topic - Essay Example How the temperature of the solution influences the enzyme activity. It is expected that the enzyme will be destroyed at high temperatures and will work slowly at low temperatures because the enzyme is found in a plant that lives approximately at 10C-30C. The influence of the pH on enzyme activity. Because the plant tissue that the enzyme is found in is not extremely acidic or basic, it is expected that extremes of pH will have a negative effect on enzyme activity. Previously prepared enzyme extract at volumes of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ml was added to tubes containing 1.0 ml guaicol dye (or 0 ml for control), 2.0 ml H2O2 (or 0 ml for control), and buffer (pH 5) at volumes of 3-5 ml to produce a total volume of 8.0 ml. Spectrophotometer readings at 500 nm were performed at 20 second intervals immediately after mixing the tubes for two minutes and the results were recorded. Mixtures of 4 ml buffer (pH 5) (or 0 ml for control), 2.0 ml H2O2 (or 0 ml for control), 1.0 ml of extract (or 0 ml for control) and 1.0 ml guaicol dye (or 0 ml for control) were combined at a total volume of 8 ml, incubated at 4C, 22C, 32C and 48C and 100C All the solutions were pre-incubated at the appropriate temperatures for 15 minutes to allow them to equilibrate before mixing. Spectrophotometer readings at 500 nm were performed at 20 second intervals immediately after mixing the tubes for two minutes and the results were recorded. To determine the effects of pH mixtures of 4 ml buffer at pH 3, 5, 7 or 9 (or 5 or 0 ml for control), 2.0 ml H2O2 (or 0 ml for control), 1.0 ml of extract (or 0 ml for control) and 1.0 ml guaicol dye (or 0 ml for control) were combined at a total volume of 8 ml. Spectrophotometer readings at 500 nm were performed at 20 second intervals immediately after mixing the tubes for two minutes and the results were recorded To see how inhibitors effect enzyme activity mixtures of 4 ml buffer (pH 5) (or 0 ml
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Vietnam War - Term Paper Example The former imperialistic Roman Empire should serve as an example of how this cause and effect scenario plays out. A similar destiny awaits America if it refuses to stop repeating the rationalizations for military involvement that kept it in Vietnam for a decade. A result of justifications emanating from Cold War, anti-communism attitudes, Vietnam became the standard by which limitations of the American military can be measured. Following the U.S. victory over the Japanese in 1945, the U.S. and former Soviet Union became engaged in a politically ideological battle that enveloped much of the rest of the world, the Cold War. Communism was clearly AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s adversary and after the Soviets build the Berlin Wall and continued to dominate other Eastern European countries, which became known as Ã¢â¬ËsatelliteÃ¢â¬â¢ nations of the Soviets, the U.S. decided to not allow communism to spread into far Southeast Asia for motivations that remain unclear. Though the U.S. used the atomic b omb in Asia less than 20 years earlier, it deployed thousands of troops to the jungles of Vietnam during the decade-long Ã¢â¬Ëpolice actionÃ¢â¬â¢ despite pleas by some that ground troops were necessary only after Ã¢â¬Ëthe bombÃ¢â¬â¢ was dropped in a clean-up role. The fiasco of Vietnam instigated an anti-military response from the majority of American citizens which contributed to the Cold WarÃ¢â¬â¢s end. ... isolationism at the ending of the 19th century to its status as the sole remaining superpower, has always been centered on the promotion and conservation of its own interests and Ã¢â¬Ëthe advancement of civilization,Ã¢â¬â¢ the exercise of power to assert itself beyond the bounds of the American continents in Ã¢â¬Ëthe interest of civilization and of humanityÃ¢â¬â¢ and its own selfish interests.Ã¢â¬ (Olney, 2004) This period of military re-evaluation lasted from the end of the Vietnam War in 1973 until the invasion of Iraq in March of 2003. The U.S. entered the Vietnam conflict to bring democracy to the oppressed indigenous population (the official reason) very optimistic of securing a quick victory. Unsurprisingly, the U.S. went into Vietnam War with somewhat of an arrogant attitude thinking that the North Vietnamese army would soon bow to the mighty American military machine and that South Vietnam would willingly accept and adjust to a westernized style system of governmen t. According to Henry Kissinger, former U.S. Secretary of State under President Nixon, America entered Vietnam with a Ã¢â¬Å"brash confidence in the universal applicability of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s prescriptions.Ã¢â¬ (Kissinger,2003) The paradoxical epilogue to Vietnam was that America went into this bloody, horrifying and long-term war believing it would be the noble liberator of the South Vietnamese. The U.S. did this without appreciating the obvious fact that the South Vietnamese people had been fighting for liberation from a North Vietnamese government which represented the same imperialistic way of thinking as the American government. (Ignatieff, 2003) The U.S. failed in Vietnam not because it lacked military capability but because it did not understand the enemy. Although the U.S. marched in with a tremendous military
Monday, January 27, 2020
Effects of Ketamine on the Human Body The desire to alter consciousness is a fundamental human trait. From being something impossible to finding numerous chemicals in controlling the mind, the process of discovery has also created opportunities for us to explore the effects and mind-tricks behind it. Just like any other new inventions in technology, there is always a path that leads to a wrong destination. The use of psychoactive drugs has turned into a trend amongst the younger generation, endangering both their own lives and the stability of the society. It has been said that this ingenious discover has benefited the forward of our medical industry; yet in our 21st century many have become a tool to escape from stress and reality. These so called party drugs are now produced in large amounts and distributed to young people at bars, nightclubs and house parties around the globe. The disastrous impact behind this irresponsible crime has led to thousands of innocent people condemned and forced to dwell in a living hell. Different people have their own definitions of the term abuse. It is hard to have a universal definition for the word as the bottom line of an individual is drawn upon their own decision. Therefore using the definition published by the World Health Organization, psychoactive substance abuse is defined as a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.Ã Ã In addition, chronic abuse in this context will be defined as a relapsing disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences as well as neurochemical and molecular changes in the brain.Ã , in other words, chronic abuse is addiction. Addiction is mostly dependent on previously exposed rewards such as food, alcohol, sex, and in this case, on the psychoactive dru g Ketamine. http://www.tjipr.com/images/enji.jpg http://healthimpactnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/VariousPills-300225.jpg What is Ketamine? Psychoactive Drugs Before answering the above question, it is important to know how ketamine is categorized as a psychoactive drug and its evolvement in human history. The term psychoactive drug is used to describe any chemical substance that affects mood, perception or consciousness as a result of changes in the functioning of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord).Ã Ã These drugs are often termed mind-altering because they change the perceptions and the behavior of the individual using them. Psychoactive drugs can be classified into seven different categories: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, cannabis, inhalants, hallucinogens and club drugs. Stimulants are mostly used to relieve tiredness and increase alertness. The most common stimulants are nicotine, which can be found in tobacco products, and caffeine, which is mixed in soft drinks and coffee. The more these drugs are consumed, the more our body will depend on it to maintain the desired effects. Cannabis acts in a similar way, only that it is a plant mainly in forms of marijuana and hashish. Depressants and Narcotics work in the opposite way. They are often used to dull senses and depress the functioning of the central nervous system. These two types of drugs are used medically as anesthetics and analgesics. Small doses of depressants may help more to relax muscles and produce calmness, while larger doses may cause difficulties with reflexes and judgement. Alcohol is a depressant which is widely found in our daily lives, and Narcotics such as opium and heroin are mostly used to relieve pain, yet a long-term dependence on these two may cause addiction and abuse. Hallucinogens and inhalants are synthetic drugs that distort the perception of reality and produce feelings of euphoria. These drugs may cause a short period of excitation and light headedness as it quickly acts on the body as it enters the bloodstream through inhalation. A good example of hallucinogenic drugs is Phencyclidine (PCP), which is mostly used as a sedative in operations before switching to Ketamine. Ketamine is the most common club drug found in the society nowadays. Club drugs have the effect of both stimulants and hallucinogens, and are most popular at party venues such as house parties and nightclubs among the younger generation. Other Club drugs include Ecstasy and Gamma-Hydroxybutryic Acid (GHB). The latter one is odorless and tasteless, therefore gaining the reputation as a date-rape drug as it may cause deep sleep a nd unconsciousness when administered with high dosage.Ã Ã Ketamine As mentioned above, Ketamine was used to replace Phencyclidine (PCP) as an anesthetic medicine.Ã Ã PCPÃ was originally tested as a surgical anesthetic in the 1950s.5 It is known as aÃ dissociativeÃ anesthetic because it can make a person feel a sense of detachment, as if the mind is separated from the body.Ã Ã PCP was used in veterinary medicine to anesthetize large animals, but was never approved for use in humans because many patients became agitated, delusional and irrational while recovering from their operations.Ã During 1960s, PCP was widely abused as it could be easily distributed in pill forms. The powdered form of PCP was developed in 1970s, commonly known as rocket fuel, superweed, etc. which is sprinkled on top of tobacco or marijuana for smoking. PCPÃ can be easily synthesized; as a result it is often sold off on streets as another drug such as mescaline or Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Due to the worse effects illustrated by patients after the use of PCP, Ketamine was developed in 1962 to replace PCP. It was first known as Cl-581, discovered by scientist Calvin Stevens. Ketamine was then tried in humans as an anesthetic for the first time by Professor Edward Domino, and this is what he said afterwards, Our findings were remarkable! The overall incidence of side effects was about one out of three volunteers. Frank emergence delirium was minimal. Most of our subjects described strange experiences like a feeling of floating in outer space and having no feeling in their arms or legs. Ã Ã The successful effects soon encouraged the drug to be patented by the company Parke-Davis for use as an anesthetic in humans and animals. Nonetheless, Professor Domino described Ketamine as a potent psychedelic drug and named it as a dissociative an anesthesia. Ketamine was first used in large quantities in the Vietnam War by the USA Army, where it was used as an anesthesia for soldiers on field. Ketamines chemical structure, mechanism of action and effects are similar to those of PCP, but it acts for a shorter duration and is less potent than PCP. The drug provides dissociative anesthesia, which is a combination of analgesia with superficial sleep. This state is characterized by spontaneous ventilation, relative preservation of airway reflexes and hemodynamic stability, and explains why Ketamine has remained the anesthetic drug of choice in the developing world and for mass casualties in the field.Ã Ã Ketamine is tasteless and odorless, so it can be added to food and drinks u ndetected. Because of this, the drug is sometimes used in sexual abuse at entertainment venues and therefore referred to as drug rape. Ketamine is known on the streets as special K, K and cat tranquilizer. Ketamine has plenty of other street names that have changed throughout the years. Originally it was known as rockmesc or mean greenÃ Ã , and then it evolved to numerous different slang names including Jet, Super K, Vitamin K, New Ecstasy, Honey oil, Mauve, Keller, Bump and Super Acid. Uses and effects of Ketamine exposure in medicine One of the most important happenings in the modern society is our breakthrough in the development of effective medicine for clinical procedures. Advances in technology has prospered the birth of new operation methods such as laparoscopic and robotic surgeries, enabling medical practitioners to increase efficiency to max, at the same time lowering the cost and risk of the procedure. These improvements have greatly ameliorated the side effects of conventional open surgery, allowing patients to heal faster with better comfort. Medicine becomes an indispensable need in our daily lives, and the more it improves, the more we rely on it. I have attended a medical lecture over the summer holidays on the background of surgery. The professor explained the four most important factors behind all the surgeries, namely the 4As: Anesthetics, Analgesics, Antibiotics and Antiseptics. Among these four, Ketamine has already covered two of these factors. Ketamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory depressant effects than other anesthetic agentsÃ Ã ; in fact it causes some stimulation of the cardiovascular system. Ketamine is soluble in water and is prepared with the sodium salt benzethonium chloride as a preservative. It is a basic compound and is dissolved in a solution of pH 3.5-5. The ketamine molecule contains an asymmetrical carbon atom with two optical isomers (enantiomers). The S (+) isomer is about three times more potent and longer acting as an anesthetic than the R (-) isomer. It is believed that the R (-) isomer is the part of the molecule that is the root o f the cause of some undesirable side effects.Ã Ã Studies recently have shown that the S (+) Ketamine isomer is a stronger analgesic with a faster clearance and less side effects than the R (-). It has shown to provide a more rapid motor and sensory block, shorter duration and less motor blockade in elder males.Ã Ã Ketamine interacts with N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA), opioid, monoaminergic, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels. However, unlike other general anesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors. The NMDA receptor is a member of the glutamate receptor family. It is an example of an ion channel coupled receptor with excitatory properties which has been implicated in the mechanism of general anesthesia, analgesia and also in neurotoxicity. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor which interferes with the action of excitatory amino acidsÃ Ã . In addition, at clinically relevant concentrations, ket amine interacts with the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site leading to significant inhibition of NMDA receptor activity. This only occurs when the calcium ion channel has been opened. Effects of Ketamine on our body We were always informed with purely the basic consequences of drug abusing. For instance, we were taught that drug abusing may cause serious damage to our body but what exactly is our body suffering from? Central Nervous System Ketamine is the only anesthetic available which has analgesic (pain relieving), hypnotic (sleep producing) and amnesic (short term memory loss) effects. When used correctly it is a very useful and versatile drug.Ã Ã Clinically, Ketamine has been reported to produce not only general but also local anesthesia. Ketamines site of action is primarily in the thalamus and limbic systems. It does not suppress respiratory drive unless high doses are used, or smaller doses given rapidly. Unlike other anesthetic agents, patients who have had ketamine may have their eyes opened and make reflex actions during the operation; therefore it is not suitable for use in eye surgeries. However, use of ketamine increases the intracranial pressure, therefore patients who have recent head injuries should avoid using it to prevent further damage. The reason behind was that the rise in mean arterial pressure caused a rise in cerebral perfusion pressure and therefore intracranial pressure. Moreover ket amine is a very effective analgesia and may be used without other analgesics intraoperatively. Due to the frequent occurrence of hallucinations after operation, the patient may be in agitation during recovery. These can be reduced by premedication and by recovering the patient in a quiet area.Ã Ã I recently read several medical research papers on the effect of anesthetics and sedatives for the developing brain. A study performed by Dr. John Olneys laboratory demonstrated widespread neuronal degeneration following the repeated administration of ketamine in newborn rats, as well as long-term decreases in neuronal density and impaired neurocognitive function in adulthood following an exposure to other anesthetic drugs.Ã Ã It is further discovered that drugs used to provide clinical anesthesia and sedation are thought to affect proper formation of the central nervous system as it interferes the NMDA-type glutamate receptor function. Moreover, several studies have examined the effects of Ketamine on the developing brain of monkeys and have observed widespread neuronal cell death following the administration of multiple doses up to 75mg/kg.Ã Ã Another study by Dr. Fredriksson and colleagues demonstrated that a single ketamine exposure of 50mg/kg in new-born mice cau sed abnormal behavior and impaired learning and memory acquisition in adolescence. Experimental data also indicate that NMDA glutamate receptor agonists and GABA receptor antagonists trigger cell death.Ã Ã As laboratory investigation on humans is not allowed, scientists may only conduct their research on rats and monkeys. The potential mechanism of anesthetic neurotoxicity is still under investigation; however, it is further complicated by the lack of understanding of exact mechanisms of consciousness and anesthesia. Therefore these results may only be interpreted as a reference to the effects that relate back to ketamine abuse. Respiratory System By using ketamine, the airway is usually well maintained as the airway reflexes and skeletal muscle tone are relatively preserved. Aspiration is a potential hazard despite the retention of protective reflexes. Ketamine is an effective bronchodilator and its action may be mediated either via an increase in blood catecholamine or by its direct smooth muscle relaxant effect.Ã Ã When ketamine is given slowly respiration is usually well maintained, after rapid intravenous injection the breathing may stop for a short while but usually restarts within a minute.Ã Ã Because of this, ketamine becomes a very useful anesthetic agent in places where there is only limited oxygen available. Cardiovascular System Ketamine is able to increase both blood pressure and heart rate. These variables reach a peak 2-4 minutes after an intravenous injection, then slowly decline to normal values over the next 10-20 minutes. Ketamine produces its cardiovascular effects by stimulating the central sympathetic nervous system and, to a lesser extent, by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine at sympathetic nerve terminals. Individual responses may vary occasionally as there can be a large rise in blood pressure. This risk is not related to a preoperative history of hypertension, but related to the usage of ketamine. This may increase the workload of the heart; hence ketamine should be avoided in those patients with ischemic heart disease. Induced bladder dysfunction Bladder dysfunction associated with ketamine abuse was first voiced out in 2007 by researchers in Canada and Hong Kong. Dr. Shahani and his team presented a series of 9 patients who are all daily ketamine users presented with dysuria, frequency, urgency and frank hematuria. The CT scans revealed a thickened bladder wall, small capacity bladder and perivescicular stranding.Ã Ã Dr. Chu and his team presented a series of ten patients with severe bladder dysfunction following regular ketamine abuse. From the statistics of their research, all patients had severe lower urinary tract symptoms and small functional bladder capacity varying from 20 to 200mls.Ã Ã A scan of the bladder (cystoscopy) also revealed that the epithelial layer of the bladder has inflammation.Ã Ã These reports were from Hong Kong and Canada where ketamine is a popular drug. Dr. Cottrell and his team reported nine patients presenting with similar urinary symptoms and cystoscopy findings following chronic ketamine usage.Ã Ã These symptoms are currently left unexplained, but with increasing popularity of the drug in the younger generation, more and more ketamine users could present with ketamine induced bladder dysfunction. As we can see from the above effects, ketamine is already able to induce a lot of problems for our body and affects the whole body system when it responses to the drug in medical uses. Some may be beneficial, but most can cause severe damage to our body, so why is ketamine still on the streets endangering our future generations? Ketamine in our society Back in Hong Kong, I often hear reports from the public media reporting that the police force discovers another drug dealing club/bar with underage drinking and drug abuse. Although we were educated with the basics of the consequences of drug abuse, one simply will not be able to know thoroughly about the essential damage that the drug does to the body. Take smoking as an example: Tobacco has existed for centuries, and people nowadays have beautifully wrapped cigarettes packed in delicate boxes. They can easily gain access to buying one of this highly toxic substance back home for their own enjoyment and pleasure. Putting aside the lack of awareness in the old days, nowadays all the education systems around the globe include the effects of smoking into our classes, no matter taught in Liberal Studies or specifically Biology, most people who have received education are equipped with the basic knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking. Even packages of cigarettes are posted with phot os of the disastrous effects of smoking, for example, a photo of a dissected lung of a chronic smoker, still does not stop smokers from getting on with their habit. In the 1970s, the drug was approved by the FDA to be used clinically on children and adults, yet at the same time it also started to flow into drug markets in public. Most of them were firstly sold by hospital staff; later on it became trendy to produce it in large amounts to divert ketamine into wider population. Over the past 20 years, Ketamine has emerged as a testing replacement for PCP to one of the most popular party drugs at underground parties and raves. In the late 20th century, the drug has already gained its reputation around the globe as one of the mainstream dance culture drugs in society. In the year 1999, The Drug Enforcement Agency in the United Sates made ketamine a schedule three drug. This means that this particular drug is illegal to buy or sell without a prescription.Ã Ã Ketamine is considered to be a Class C drug in the UK and Mexico, the equivalent of a schedule three in the United States; and schedule one in Canada. It was legal to possess ketamine in England, Scotland and Wales before 2006. Most countries currently have ketamine under controlled substance act in which it can be used as a medication but not recreationally, for instance ketamine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong Chapter 134 of Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. It can only be used legally by health professionals, for university research purposes, or with a physicians prescription.Ã Ã Taking the data of ketamine abuse in Hong Kong, in recent years, it has become more common among the teens. In Hong Kong, since 2005 it has become the commonest drug of abuse among persons aged 21 years or less; compared to the first three quarters of 2005, the number of ketamine abusers among teenagers has doubled in the first three quarters of 2008.Ã Ã In 2008, ketamine abuse constituted 85% of all kinds of drug abuse among persons aged below 21 years, compared to 61% in 2005. Also, data collected by the Hospital Authority Hong Kong Poison Information Centre (HKPIC) showed that ketamine abusers represented 16% of all drug abusers attending accident and emergency departments in the period of 1 July 2005 to 31 December 2005, while the proportion rose to 40% in the period of 1 January 2008 to 30 June, indicating a steep increase of the number of ketamine abusers.Ã Ã Solutions? The reason I decided to put a question mark after this sub topic is because there is no concrete evidence that the treatments I list below will 100% cure the patient. To overcome the psychological dependence on ketamine, the ultimate factor during the process will be the patients endurance and willpower. Without consistency to finish the whole course of treatment is no different to receiving no treatment. Just like antibiotics, you have to finish the whole course in order to fully recover from your illness. We live in an inconsistent and contradictory society. On the bright side, we advise the society not to abuse drugs and say no to the people who sell or offer them to you; yet on the other hand, medical practitioners are encouraging us to take medicine that might cause similar effects and consequences as drugs like ketamine. While we tell young people that ketamine is illegal and dangerous for their health, we ignore to a large extent the bad effects that alcohol has on health, thus making it legal even if it has devastating effects on our body as well. The world has slowly turned into a place where benefits and money take hierarchy over the health of the public. There is an increase in frequent reports of making fake milk powder and eggs, as well as drug manufacturers such as the recent incident of Contergan taking the blame of causing Phocomelia in infants whose parents had taken the medicine. One of the main reasons that ketamine is still one of the most popular party drugs nowaday s is due to the commercial income it brings when it comes to selling and buying. Drug dealing is happening around the globe every day, and what attracts people to do it is not the drug, but the money. Values have been overthrown by the nature of human kind, where selfishness topples conscience in the business world, no matter legal or illegal. Laws and regulations are developed over time to control the extent of these shameful behaviors, yet ultimately there is no thorough solution to this problem. Most societies are uncomfortable with people going off into trance and hallucinatory intoxications, and indeed setting up the laws against the usage and possession of drugs are to discourage people from falling into those in-built worlds of their own. But innate, neuropsychological changes in a persons body cannot be controlled by legislation. Provided that they have the desire to take the drug, they will always be satisfied by themselves. Alcohol may no longer fulfill the need for teenagers to take off from reality into their virtual world of desires after they become fully exposed to it, and slowly they turn to seek stronger effects by trying out drugs like marijuana and ketamine. As they become satisfied with the effects given by the drugs, trying gradually becomes abusing. They start to develop unwise behavior as they reckon that the feeling is brought by the pills rather than from their own nervous systems getting into trouble when the pills no longer work so well. Their drug abuse becomes more frequent and compulsive, yet with less reward. This misconception is the first step to developing drug dependence, no matter whether the drug is marijuana or ketamine or if it produces physiological dependence or not. Dependence on the drug cannot be broken until the misconception is cleared. Drug abusers live on their own reasons to continue, and only those who realize that he/she has been using the drug merely as an excus e for having an experience that is superficial comes to see that the drugged state is not exactly the same with the experience he/she wants. Alternatively, they will start looking for ways that may fulfill the slight desire to lift up from reality, such as meditation and sleeping. If we look in closely to the successful examples of quitting drugs: Many drug abusers give up drugs for consciousness, but little gives up consciousness for drugs. Conclusion We see people travelling through time and going into the mind of others to retrieve thoughts and ideas in fiction and movies, and it is definitely something that I would love to do as well. Yet is it possible to live in dreams and neglect whats really happening in the world we exist in? By altering the state of our consciousness, our brain is simply sending the wrong signal back to ourselves, putting us into a world of our own desires and fantasies. Ketamine can definitely achieve this, but after the short-lived dreams disappear, we will only fall deeper into the K-hole and become more dependent on the drug. We must be clear about the severe effects and consequences that ketamine brings to the individual and the society, and reiterate these problems to the public to prevent further abuse of it. Psychoactive drugs will always be present as a part of our life. The society needs to recognize the problems caused by the misuse of ketamine and deal with them immediately in an open and realistic way. Drug abuse is now connected with other social problems as well, such as social deprivation or family issues. We actually do not know whether the people who abuse it really likes it, but all we need to know is how ketamine can vastly change a persons life when you become addicted to it. From the medical research evidence shown, ketamine can really ruin your life when you are associated with it, yet why blame the drug when it is down to you to choose the reality or to stay in the dreams built by your own desires?
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Learning Outcome 1: Understand the purpose of planning communication 1.1 Explain why different communication methods are used in the business environment. Effective communication is vital to the smooth running of a business and various methods of communication are used within a business environment to achieve this. Each form has various benefits to communicate effectively to their designated target audience. When communication is carried out properly it means the sender and receiver both correctly obtain the same information. Each form of communication will be chosen to which is applicable to the situation for example for a one-to-one/ team meeting will be best carried out face-to-face as it is the most effective way to make sure a point is understood properly, as it is a lot more personal and professional. Whereas if a company wants to distribute a monthly newsletter, this wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be as personal as a face to face, it could be carried out over email. Therefore this wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean a employee would have to take time out of work and the messages can be sent on a large scale without taking much time to process. Read more:Ã Identify the different reasons people communicateÃ essay 1.2 Describe the communication requirements of different audiences. Communication styles need to be adjusted and adapted depending on the targetÃ audience and situation. This is determined by considering which mean of communication is most effective whether it be written or verbal. The various requirements that may need to be catered for include age, gender and ethnicity and special needs. For example, younger people have shorts attention spans, while older people are more patient and are able to sit for longer period of time. Another example is making the visual communication more accessible such as large fonts for partially sighted people. When preparing verbal presentations people with special needs should be considered, such as people who lip read, so they can be positioned appropriately in the room. People with mobility problems such as wheelchair users may require wide aisles for easy access. If arranging group activities you will be required to consider the group of people so that a special needs member can cooperate. 1.3 Explain the importance of using correct grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, spelling and conventions in business communications. a Grammar The aim of having correct grammar is to ensure what is written is correctly understood. A sentence that contains grammatical errors can be difficult to read and can cause misunderstandings. It is important to use correct grammar whether writing or speaking to communicate effectively to help people get a better understanding and to express your communication more precisely and clearly. b Sentence structure It is important to use correct sentence structure in business communications so your writing has variation and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all the same. Using a variety of sentence types can help emphasise different points and ideas. A good sentence structure allows the communication to be correctly interpreted whereas a poor sentence structure can be misinterpreted. c Punctuation It is essential to use correct punctuation to enable the communication to be readable and easy to understand. Punctuation is used in writing to separate sentences and clarify meaning. An error in punctuation can convey an inaccurate meaning to the one intended. d Spelling It is important to use correct spelling in business communications as standardising spelling makes it a lot clearer to understand the text. Incorrect spelling can lead to confusion, mistakes being made and communications being misinterpreted. One misspelled word can change the entire meaning of a sentence giving the reader the wrong message or impression. e Conventions It is important to use conventions in business communications to ensure the writing is in a easier format which the reader will be comfortable with. Conventions are the spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar and paragraphing making writing more understandable. This enhances the readability for the audience so they can fluently read the communication without having to stop and try figure out what was actually intended. The use of proper grammar and vocabulary is appropriate in business documents, such as emails and letters, as it is important in a working environment to form a professional respectable relationship with colleagues and customers. If sending an email or letter professionally for business use this would be in a very formal format, whereas if the email was getting sent to a friend the language would be very informal with possibly the use of flag or text talk. The use of conventions always needs to be adjusted depending on the audience, purpose and context. 1.4 Explain the importance of using appropriate body language and tone of voice when communicating verbally. A large part of face-to-face communication is made up of non-verbalÃ information and is expressed by body language and tone of voice. The tone of your voice includes the volume which you speak, the type of emotion you use and the emphasis placed on the words you use. The same sentence could have various meanings depending on which word is emphasized so it is important to us the appropriate tone when placing emphasis on words to draw the listenerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Doing this incorrectly could mislay the wrong information and impression. Body language portray subconscious messages when communicating. Examples of body language include eye contact, facial expressions, composure and gestures. Body language is recognised instinctively, without having to be told what it means. When relaying messages a lot of the time it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t what you say it is how you say it and if your body language contradicts this, the message will not be clear to the audience.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
To what extent is the novel quintessentially Australian? Jasper Jones is an Australian novel by Craig Silvey that explores issues prominent in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s 1960s context. Set in the fictional mining town of Corrigan, the novel is a bildungsroman following Charlie Bucktin as he is awakened to the harsh reality of human nature. The novel addresses the main themes of morality, justice and trust, but these universal human issues are coloured by an Australian setting, reflective of SilveyÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporary context. The issues of morality and ethics have always been fundamental to the human struggle, but Silvey explores these themes through uniquely Australian concerns, namely the plight of the outcasts, in the treatment of indigenous Australians and immigrants. The setting of the novel, a small town where people are ignorant and bigoted, is representative of the same issues in the wider Australian context. It is made clear to Jasper that Ã¢â¬Å"This town, they think IÃ¢â¬â¢m a bloody animal.Ã¢â¬ due to his half-Aboriginal heritage. The animal metaphor and emotive language highlights CorriganÃ¢â¬â¢s non-tolerance towards racial differences, while the first person perspective depicts the damaging effect this has upon an outcast individual. This is reinforced by the treatment of other characters such as the An family Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Go back to Hanoi, rats.Ã¢â¬ The repetition of derogatory animal metaphor and the aggressive tone reveals the prevalent racism. Charlie himself is also bullied for using words that are Ã¢â¬Å"too cleverÃ¢â¬ . SilveyÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of Corrigan is representative of the morality of his own society. In this racist and anti-intellectual Australian context, outcasts are isolated and beaten down. The theme of justice is closely linked to that of morality; in a town with corrupted values, can justice ever be impartial? CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s moral conflict over whether or not to report Laura WishartÃ¢â¬â¢s body explores the idea of moral relativity. He is aware that Ã¢â¬Å"All that matters is the fact of this girlÃ¢â¬â¢s death and the townÃ¢â¬â¢s imaginationÃ¢â¬ . The collective town is characterised as an anthropomorphic entity with skewed values; forcing innocent boys to act as if guilty. Ã¢â¬Å"I feel I am caught in a rip, being dragged out further and deeper against my will.Ã¢â¬ The use of the simileÃ conveys the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ helplessness to enact justice in the face of the Ã¢â¬Å"townÃ¢â¬â¢s imaginationÃ¢â¬ . The body itself is a symbol of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying moral dilemmas. In disposing of LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s body, Charlie explicitly says that Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m committing a crime.Ã¢â¬ He knows that helping Jasper is the right thing to do, but the use of the word crime, and all it connotes, illustrates how morality can be contrary to traditional justice. The issues of morality and justice explored are unquestionably universal in nature, but the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s particular setting and situation renders it a striking commentary on quintessentially Australian concerns. The value of trust and loyalty is also one that is common to all human experience, and it is this that defines Charlie and JasperÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship; which is forged at the beginning of the novel by the crisis of finding LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Ã¢â¬Å"Trust me. You got to trust me. Like I trust you.Ã¢â¬ JasperÃ¢â¬â¢s pleading tone and the repetition of the highly emotive word Ã¢â¬Å"trustÃ¢â¬ , begging Charlie to help him escape the injustice of being wrongfully persecuted, cements trust as a key value in the novel. With this trust, Charlie is able to look beyond JasperÃ¢â¬â¢s race and form a bond with him, despite the townÃ¢â¬â¢s negative stereotyping. He states that Ã¢â¬Å"I am the ally of Jasper JonesÃ¢â¬ , and helps him despite his conflicted morals. The word Ã¢â¬Å"allyÃ¢â¬ suggests that despite not knowing Jasper very well, they share a mutual trust and dependence. The relationship between the boys is reminiscent of the loyalty and comradeship between soldiers, bonded by trial. Against the backdrop of the Vietnam War, these values were highly important to the Australian cultural identity in SilveyÃ¢â¬â¢s context. Through CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s coming of age, SilveyÃ¢â¬â¢s Jasper Jones presents a compelling insight into the duality of morality and the human values of loyalty and justice. Though these are undeniably universal in nature, Silvey explores these issues through the lens of his own Australian context, to give a novel which is quintessentially Australian and yet fundamentally human.